Budgerigars and a Cockatiel in captivity
Aviculture is the practice of keeping and breeding birds and the culture that forms around it. Aviculture is generally focused on not only the raising and breeding of birds, but also on preserving avian habitat, and public awareness campaigns.
1 Types of aviculture
2 Avicultural societies
3 Avicultural publications
4.1 Wild Bird Conservation Act of 1992
5 See also
Types of aviculture[edit source]
There are various reasons that people get involved in aviculture. Some people breed birds to preserve a species. Some people breed parrots as companion birds, and some people breed birds as a business.
Aviculture is the practice of keeping birds in captivity using controlled conditions, normally within the confines of an aviary, for business, hobby, research & conservation purposes and food as poultry and turkey, game.
Some important reasons for Aviculture are: propagating pairs of birds to preserve the species because many avian species are at risk due to habitat destruction and natural disasters. Aviculture encourages conservation, provides education about avian species, includes research on avian behavior, and provides thousands of pet bird companions for the public.
Since the 1970's aviculture in the U.S. has included exotic bird farming, the business of raising exotic birds for companion animals for the general public. These exotic bird farms have provided domestic raised parrots and other avian species which would otherwise not be available. Large and small exotic bird farms exist in many countries, including the U.S., Europe, S. Africa, Australia, the Mid-East and Asia. Along with the rise of exotic birds kept as pets, other businesses have arisen to provide for the needs of those pet birds: cage and aviary structures, commercial bird feeds, toys and other equipment, and a specialized veterinary practice for avian species: the Association of Avian Veterinarians.
The truest meaning of aviculture, was described by Dr. Jean Delacour, the most dedicated, influential, and highly respected individual in the modern history of aviculture.
"Aviculture - The worldwide business of keeping and breeding numerous species of wild birds in captivity to maintain their numerical status in nature with a view of forestalling their extinction by supplying aviary raised stock."
AVICULTURE HISTORY: 1. 1903. Aviculture was recognized as a leading influence in the Agriculture industry. In 1913 the first and only text book was published for the Universities and schools: Elementary Lessons In Aviculture. LIBRARY OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY.
2. 1894 Council meeting documented in THE AVICULTURAL MAGAZINE BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE AVICULTURAL SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY OF BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIRDS IN FREEDOM AND CAPTIVITY.
1894 council gave executive orders to the following "A word as to our name. It seems 'desirable and even necessary, to
invent or acclimatize a word which shall denote " a person interested in the
keeping and breeding of l)irds," and AvicuUurlst (being analogous to
Horticulturist) will do perhaps as well as another. If any one will suggest
a better, we shall be glad to adopt it — till then, we beg to subscribe our-
Avicultural societies[edit source]
There are avicultural societies throughout the world, but generally in Europe, Australia and the United States, where people tend to be more prosperous, having more leisure time to invest. The first avicultural society in Australia was The Avicultural Society of South Australia, founded in 1928. It is now promoted with the name Bird Keeping in Australia. The two major national avicultural societies in the United States are the American Federation of Aviculture and the Avicultural Society of America, founded in 1927.
Avicultural publications[edit source]
Like many businesses and education about birds there are many publications catering to aviculture, such as books on species which include pets, books on breeding, and introductory books for parrots and softbills and pigeons and poultry. There are also numerous periodicals, both generalized and specific to types of birds, although they are rarely more specific than "parrot." These periodicals contain articles on breeding, care, companionship, choosing a bird, health effects and usually, several articles on an individual species or genus. Supply companies publish catalogs of products for bird keepers including equipment and aviaries. Their products range from hand-rearing supplies to cages as large as a walk-in aviary. The oldest Avicultural Society in the United States is the Avicultural Society of America, founded in 1927. The ASA produces a critically acclaimed bi-monthly magazine entitled ASA Avicultural Bulletin. The ASA is a 501(3)(c) non-profit organization that focuses on breeding, conservation, restoration and education. Their yearly education conference features notable speakers from around the world.
The Avicultural Society of South Australia (founded in 1928) produces a monthly full-colour magazine called "Bird Keeping in Australia". It deals with all aspects of aviculture in Australia. The ASSA is registered as an educational organization, having the motto: Founded 1928, for the Study, Care, Breeding and Conservation of Birds.
Wild Bird Conservation Act of 1992[edit source]
Aviculture includes Exotic Birds selected and described in the WBCA, 1992. Aviculture also includes the birds that are selected and described to be not included in the WBCA, 1992. Exotic Birds is the terminology used in the WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT OF 1992 that are protected.
Avianitarian is the caretaker of the selected and described exotic birds written in the WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT OF 1992. (1) A Propagator of exotic birds; (2) a person who has knowledge of, ability to practice and perform basic avicultural medical procedures; (3) a person who has knowledge of and skill to artificially incubate and hatch eggs of a species of exotic birds; (4) a person who has knowledge and ability to hand-feed hatchling exotic birds and perform duties required to maintain an avian nursery; (5) a person who has the knowledge and ability to enter and maintain data in a avian record-keeping program(s); (6) a person who has knowledge and ability to manage an aviary or groups of exotic birds including knowledge on how to implement proper quarantine facilities and housing environments for the exotic birds, and (7) a person who is able to provide exotic birds with adequate dietary and nutritional needs. (8) a person who takes the time to observe and attempt to meet the behavioral needs of the exotic birds in their care.
From the common name canary (associated with the Serinus canaria), a song bird is native to the Canary Islands, Madeira, and the Azores. This bird has been kept as a cagebird in Europe from the 1470s to the present, now enjoying an international following. The terms canariculture and canaricultura have been used in French, Spanish and Italian respectively, to describe the keeping and breeding of canaries for some time. English speaking canary breeders are beginning to use the term more commonly.
Avianitarian (Parrot keeper) is a person who specializes in propagating and conserving WBCA selected psittacines species, also on preserving WBCA selected psittacines habitat and public awareness campaigns of the threats to the ongoing existence of ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT parrots worldwide
OCCUPATIONS RELATED TO AVICULTURE The value of a knowledge of domestic birds is not limited to the use which may be made of it in keeping them for profit or for pleasure. Any occupation in which a great many people are interested affords opportunities to combine the knowledge relating to it with special knowledge or skill in other lines, to the advantage of those who are able to do so. Just as the large market or fancy poultry business may develop from a small flock kept to supply the owner's table or to give him a little recreation with a pet, many special occupations grow out of particular interests of aviculturists and Avianitarians. the principal occupations associated with aviculture to devote themselves to lines of work which would qualify them for special service in aviculture.
Judging There is the same difference between selecting one's own birds according to quality and judging the birds of others in competition that there is between performing well in a friendly game and performing well in a competition where the stakes are important and feeling runs high. Journalism. Advertisers for birds, and of goods bought by aviculturists/avianitarians also used advertising mediums through which they could reach buyers at less cost than they could through the agricultural papers.
Art In order to successfully portray birds for critical fanciers, an artist must be something of a bird lover. It is not enough that he should draw or paint them as he sees them ; he must know how to pose birds of different kinds, types, and breeds so that his pictures will show the proper characteristic poses and show the most important characters to their best advantage.
Invention The most important invention used in aviculture is the artificial incubator. Methods of hatching eggs by artificial heat were developed independently by the Egyptians. Operating incubators is a business continued in the same families for centuries.
Experiment Stations As the demands for more accurate information on many avicultural topics increased, many of the stations began to make important poultry, parrot investigations. For this work men specially trained in various sciences were required. As a rule the men that were secured for such work knew very little about poultry when they began their investigations, but it was much easier for them to acquire a knowledge of poultry sufficient for their needs than for persons who had poultry knowledge and no scientific training to qualify for positions as investigators. The field of investigation of matters relating to poultry and parrots is constantly being extended. Proficiency in physics, chemistry, biology, surgery, medicine, and in higher mathematics as far as it relates to the problems of any of the sciences mentioned, will always be in demand for scientific work in aviculture. In the future the most efficient teachers and investigators will be those whose early familiarity with domestic birds has given a greater insight into the subject than is usually possessed by those who take up the study of the subject comparatively late in life.
Manufacturing and commerce. It is much easier to build up a large business in the manufacture or the sale of articles used by poultry, pigeon and parrot keepers than to build up a large business as a breeding facility of domestic birds of any kind. A special field is opening for lawyers familiar with aviculture and with its relations to other matters, just as within a few years the field has opened to teachers and investigators. The possible uses of a knowledge of aviculture for young people who are naturally inclined toward intellectual professions, art, invention, manufacturing, or trading have not been given for the sake of urging students to direct their course especially toward work connected with aviculture. The object is only to show those who take an interest in the subject that it is worth while to cultivate that interest for other reasons, as well as for the profit or the pleasure that may be immediately derived.
See also[edit source]
American Federation of Aviculture
3. Our domestic birds; elementary lessons in aviculture ([c1913])
Author: Robinson, John Henry, 1863-1935
Subject: Poultry; Pigeons; Cage birds
Publisher: Boston, New York [etc.] Ginn and company
Possible copyright status: NOT_IN_COPYRIGHT
Volume: 1, 1894-1895
Identifier: cbarchive_131949_council1894 Mediatype: texts Original_publication: The Avicultural magazine. Publication_type: Journal Article Section: 2 Source_organization: Biodiversity Heritage Library OAI Repository Source_project: Biodiversity Source_url: http://biodiversitylibrary.org/oai Url: http://citebank.org/node/131949 Identifier-access: archive.org/details/cbarchive_131949_council1894 Identifier-ark: ark:/13960/t9q24xf2z Ppi: 300 Ocr: ABBYY FineReader 8.0
5. Author: Avicultural Society
Volume: 12, ser. 3, 1921
Subject: Aviculture; Birds; Cage birds
Publisher: [Ascot, Berkshire, etc., Avicultural Society, etc.]
Possible copyright status: NOT_IN_COPYRIGHT
Call number: b1127265
Digitizing sponsor: Biodiversity Heritage Library
Book contributor: American Museum of Natural History Library
Collection: biodiversity; americanmuseumnaturalhistory; americana